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End of Fist Semester 1

1/7 to 1/16
5th Chapter Assignments Menu 1

2/21 Learned about bees:
  • Bee's relationship with plants
  • Speical behaviors of bees
  • Preditors of bees
Write 12 facts about bees and/or pollination.
Textbook pages: 464 and 372-373 and 286-287
Or report on the current problem with bees. ("colony collapse disorder")
http://abcnews.go.com/International/CSM/story?id=3837480


12/20
Finish Celebrity Babies
Plus the following Notes:
Genetics Terms
1. Phenotype – observable traits
2. Traits – differences in one characteristic
3. Genes are instructions for producing a trait.
4. Genes consist of a base pair code on a section DNA that produces a trait
5. Different traits are caused by differences in the base-pairs of the DNA code.
6. Every individual has two copies of very gene. One from each parent.
7. Each of these copies is represented by a letter in a genotype.
8. Genotypes consist of two letters that represent the two copies present for a gene.
9. One copy of a gene can dominate or show instead of the other copy. This form is dominant.
10. A form of a gene that is present, but not showing is recessive.
11. In a genotype, capital letters are used to indicate the dominant form of a gene.
12. In a genotype, lower case letters are used to indicate the recessive form of a gene.


12/19
Celebrity Babies Activity
external image msword.png Celebrity_Babies_Activity.doc


12/18
Human Traits Explored and Talked About.


12/17
DNA Extraction Lab


12/14
The Protein Synthesis Activity continues.
See previous days assignment below.
Student example of translation steps that demonstrates an understanding of the activity.


12/13
The Protein Synthesis Activity continues.
1. Students demonstrated the use of the paper models to make a protein.
2. Students turned in a list the the 25 amino acids coded for by the messenger RNA model used in this activity.
3. Students made a list of the first nine events that happened in making a protein. In other words they described the first nine movement of their model pieces in making a protein. An example follows:
Transcription: How a protein is put together at the ribosome.
1. A messenger RNA and a ribosome come together.
2. A transfer RNA comes to the ribosome and pairs up with the first codon on the messenger RNA. This transfer RNA brought an amino acid with it.
3. A second transfer RNA comes to the ribosome and pairs up the second codon on the messenger RNA. This second transfer RNA also brought an amino acid with it.
4. The ribosome connects these two amino acids.
5. The messenger RNA shifts over one codon across the ribosome.
6. A third transfer RNA come to the ribosome and pairs up the the third codon on the messenger RNA. This pairing causes the first transfer RNA to be released. This third transfer RNA also brought an amino acid to the ribosome.
7. The ribosome connects the third amino acid to the second, making a chain of three amino acids.
8. The messenger RNA again shifts over one codon across the ribosome.
9. This pairing of transfer RNA to messenger RNA codons, connecting of amino acids by the ribosome, and messenger RNA shifting over one codon across the ribosome repeats until a stop codon is reached..
10 The chain of amino acids is then released as a completed protein.


12/12
The Protein Synthesis Activity continues.
Notes and lecture to go with this activity. Concepts and vocabulary were related to a diagram of the activity models.
4_3 Protein Synthesis Activity Notes
1. A chain of amino acid is a protein.
The result of this activity will be a chain of amino acids which is called a protein.
2. Proteins build cells and tissues or work as enzymes.
Cells and tissues are what organism are build from. Enzymes control the activities of cells. Hormones are special enzymes that control the activities of organs.
3. The nucleus is where the first step of protein synthesis takes place.
4. Messenger RNA is a RNA copy of the DNA that codes for a protein.
5. Messenger RNA brings the instructions for making a protein from the nucleus to the ribosome.
6. The ribosome is the organelle where proteins are made.
7. Ribosomes make proteins by connecting amino acids.
The only thing in this activity that you will be connecting or gluing are these.
8. Transfer RNA bring amino acids to the ribosome.
9. Transfer RNA has three bases on one end that pair with the three letter codons on the messenger RNA.
10. The “T” shaped pieces in this activity represent transfer RNA.
11. The long strip of paper in this activity represents ( ).
12. Codons are three letters codes for the different kinds of amino acids.
13. Some amino acids are specified by four different codons, while others only have one codon.
14. Because of the pairings between the transfer RNA and the messengers RNA, the order of the codons on the messenger RNA determines the order of the amino acids in the protein being made.
15. Each transfer RNA brings and amino acid to the ribosome where they are connected to the growing strand of amino acids.
16. A strand of amino acids is called a protein. (This activity makes one.)
17. When the codons on the m-RNA pair with the three bases on the t- RNA, the “C”s pair with the “G”s and the “A”s pair with the “U”s.
18. The codons on the m-RNA are instructions for specific kinds of amino acids.
19. Each kind of t_RNA brings a specific kind of amino acid to the Ribosome.
20. The ribosome connects the amino acids brought it by the t-RNA and connects them in the order of the codons on the m-RNA to make a protein.


12/11
The Protein Synthesis Activity continues.
Students figured out how to use their model pieces to produce a chain of amino acids. Students connected the amino acid models with a glue stick.
As preperation for the above. Students were shown a diagram of how to set up their t-RNA and amino acid models for emulating Transcription. Students were shown three diagrams of the ribosome, m-RNA, t-RNA and amino acid models. In the first, showed one amino acid at the ribosome. The second, showed a second amino acid being joined to the first. The third, showed the connected amino acids being joined to a third amino acid. Students were told that this process continues until the protein is complete.
Concepts covered again:
Making Amino Acid Chains at the ribosome:
1. A ribosome is joined by a piece of messenger RNA at its first or starting codon. Codons consist of three RNA bases and are the codes for particular amino acids.
2. In the cytoplasm, one kind of amino acid is attached to each transfer RNA.
3. The three bases of a transfer RNA pair up with the first codon on the m-RNA, bring the amino acid associated with it along.
4. The three bases of a second t-RNA pair up with the second codon on the m-RNA, bringing a second amino acid to the ribosome.
5. The first amino acid is bonded to the second.
6. The next codon of the m-RNA moves to the ribosome and is matched by another t-RNA.
7. The first two connected amino acids are joined to the third amino acid, making a chain of three amino acids.
8. This growing chain of amino acids is attached to each new amino acid brought to the ribosome by t-RNAs. The bases on these t_RNAs are paired to the codons on the m-RNA in order. This attaching of amino acids after the pairing of t-RNAs to codons continues to occurs as the codons on the m-RNA are passed across the ribosome.
9. The amino acid chain is added to until a stop codon on the m-RNA reaches the ribosome.
10. The amino acid chain is released as a completed protein.
11. This process is commonly called translation.

12/7
Japanese Macaque Video. Present 12 facts about this creature.

12/6
The Protein Synthesis Activity continued.
The class watched Transcription and Translation animations of Protein Synthesis found on the Internet. Students labeled their models of transfer RNA. Students finished writing codons on their model of messenger RNA. Students began problem solving of how to used their model pieces to practice activities of translation.
Lecture content:
Making Amino Acid Chains at the ribosome:
1. A ribosome is joined by a piece of messenger RNA at its first or starting codon. Codons consist of three RNA bases and are the codes for particular amino acids.
2. In the cytoplasm, one kind of amino acid is attached to each transfer RNA.
3. The three bases of a transfer RNA pair up with the first codon on the m-RNA, bring the amino acid associated with it along.
4. The three bases of a second t-RNA pair up with the second codon on the m-RNA, bringing a second amino acid to the ribosome.
5. The first amino acid is bonded to the second.
6. The next codon of the m-RNA moves to the ribosome and is matched by another t-RNA.
7. The first two connected amino acids are joined to the third amino acid, making a chain of three amino acids.
8. This growing chain of amino acids is attached to each new amino acid brought to the ribosome by t-RNAs. The bases on these t_RNAs are paired to the codons on the m-RNA in order. This attaching of amino acids after the pairing of t-RNAs to codons continues to occurs as the codons on the m-RNA are passed across the ribosome.
9. The amino acid chain is added to until a stop codon on the m-RNA reaches the ribosome.
10. The amino acid chain is released as a completed protein.
11. This process is commonly called translation.


12/5
The Protein Synthesis Activity continued.
Students followed the Transcription procedure steps and used a table to determine RNA codons for their model of m-RNA. The student began writing these RNA codons on a long strip of paper making their m-RNA model.
Lecture content:
Messenger RNA:
1. Messenger RNA carries the code or pattern for making a protein from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome in the cytoplasm.
2. Messenger RNA is a RNA copy of the DNA that codes for a protein.
3. DNA and RNA are both made of units called nucleotides.
4. Nucleotides have three parts; a sugar, a phosphate, and a nucleic acid.
5. Where DNA contains the sugar deoxyribose, RNA contains the sugar ribose.
6. DNA is made of two strands like a ladder, but RNA is only made of one strand
7. The bases in DNA and RNA are the same except where DNA has Thymine, RNA has Uracil.

Making Messenger RNA
1. The DNA that codes for a protein is “unzipped” exposing the bases of its nucleotides at a starting spot.
2. The bases of free, RNA nucleotides pair up with the exposed DNA bases one at a time. “C”s pair up with “G”s. “G”s pair up with “C”s. “A”s pair up with “T”s. “Us” pair up with “A”s.
3. The sugars and phosphates of these RNA nucleotides are connected forming a single strand of RNA
4. This pairing of RNA bases to DNA and connecting RNA nucleotides into a single strand occurs until a stopping spot is reached on the DNA.
5. The messenger RNA is complete. It leaves the nucleus and goes to a ribosome to provide the information or pattern for making a protein.
6. The making of RNA from DNA is commonly called transcription.


12/4
The Protein Synthesis Activity was started.
Students cut out paper models for a ribosome and Transfer RNA.
Lecture content:
Information on Proteins:
1. Protein Synthesis is the process of making a protein starting with its genetic code or instructions.
2. Proteins build the cells and tissues of the body or work as enzymes.
3. Proteins are made of chains of hundreds or thousands amino acids.
4. Genes contain the instruction for making a protein.
5. Genes are a section of DNA that is used as a template or pattern for determining the order of amino acids in a protein.
6. Different proteins are made of a different number and a different order of amino acids


12/3/07
Part 1:
Write your name in Braille. Understanding Braille can serve as an analogy for understanding protein synthesis. The dots are a code comparable to the codons in Messenger RNA. Translating the dots of Braille into letters is comparable to how Transfer RNA translates the codons of M-RNA into amino acids. Words being composed of strings of letters is comparable to proteins being composed of strings of amino acids. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Braille
Part 2:
For pages 110 to 113, write the main idea of each paragraph and list the facts that support it. If you have trouble determining the main idea, list the facts and then ask your self, "what are all these facts about."

11/30/07 Manatee Video - Research and turn in twelve facts about manatees.

11/28 and 11/29 DNA Structure and Copying Activity

11/27 4_3 DNA Structure Notes / Polyploidy - Reading and Questions (Visual Explanation of the structure of DNA)
4_3 DNA's Structure Notes (Two Columns)
DNA:
1. is a long, thin, double stranded molecule
2. duplicates before cell division
3. forms into two attached chromatids for mitosis and meiosis
4. contains information in a code
5. DNA's structure was shown as two chains of molecules in a spiral form by an x-ray picture taken by Rosalind Franklin
6. A model of DNA was made by Watson and Crick using Franklin's x-ray
7. Structure of DNA: looks like a twisted ladder or a double helix
8. Structure of DNA: The sides of the ladder are made of a sugar (deoxyribose) molecule and a phosphate group.
9. Structure of DNA: The steps of the ladder are made up of nitrogen bases.
10. Nitrogen Base amounts: Adenine always equals thymine and cytosine always equals guanine
11. Equal amounts indicated that nitrogen bases occur in pairs in the rungs of the ladder.
Polyploidy Questions p. 108
Write the question or answer in complete sentences using part of the question. Your choice.
1. What do you receive from each of your parents?
2. What does having two sets of chromosome make you?
3. What is polyploidy?
4. What causes polyploidy?
5. What makes plants with polyploidy valuable?
6. What often occurs in plants with an odd number of chromosome sets?
7. Define haploid and diploid.
Read pages 110 and 111 when finished


11/26 "Tangled Tale"
4th Chapter – Tangled Tale – P. 118
Read and answer the questions. Either write the questions or answer in complete sentences including part of the question.
First paragraph
1. a) During what stage of the cell cycle are chromosomes arranged like spaghetti? (page 97, 2nd paragraph or 98, 2nd paragraph)
b) For what stage of the cell cycle do chromosomes form attached, chromatid pairs? (Hint: Prophase is not part of the cell cycle.)
c) Why were scientist unable to determine the number of chromosomes in cells? (Page 118)
d) What was the result of the doctor's accident?
Second paragraph
2. a) What did the doctor do because of the accident?
Third paragraph
3. a) What is a variable?
b) What caused the chromosomes to scatter?
Fourth paragraph
4. a) What is osmosis?
b) In what predictable way does osmosis move water?
c) What was special about the solution used to prepare the cells?
d) What is a solution?
e) What happened to the cell to separate the chromosome strands?

Draw figure 14 and label it as shown on the board.
  • Double strand of DNA
  • DNA wrapped around proteins
  • Thick strands are formed by proteins
  • Chromatids made form protein and DNA strands
  • A chromosome made of attached, chromatid pairs
  • Centromere – attachment between chromatids

6. Define:
a) Protein
b) DNA
c) RNA
d) Gene
e) Mutation

Review
7. What are three differences between mitosis and meiosis?
a)
b)
c)